History of Rome - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Rome: Ruins of the Forum, Looking towards the Capitol (1. Canaletto. The city of Rome originated as a village of the Latini in the 9th century BC.
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It was initially ruled by kings, but the Roman Republic was established in 5. BC. During the 5th century BC, Rome gained regional dominance in Latium, and eventually the entire Italian peninsula by the 3rd century BC. The population of the city at this point is estimated at about 3. The Roman Empire was established under Octavian in 2. BC, after Julius Caesar's conquest of Gaul, followed by a period of civil war. The city of Rome now surpassed a population of one million, likely the first city in history to reach this size (compared to world population of about 2. Following the Crisis of the Third Century and the transfer of the imperial capital to Constantinople in AD 3.
Rome entered a period of gradual decline. After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, Rome managed to hang on to the empire, still known as the Roman empire but long centered on the eastern Mediterranean, until the 8th century as the Duchy of Rome. But the city was reduced to a fraction of its former size, being sacked several times in the 5th to 6th centuries, in 5. Papacy struggled to retain influence in the emerging Holy Roman Empire, and during the Saeculum obscurum, the population of Rome fell to as low as 3. Rome began to recover some importance in the late 1. The Sistine Chapel was restored in 1.
The Roman Missal and the Chrism Mass; The Roman Missal and the Evening Mass of the Lord's Supper; The Roman Missal and the Easter Vigil.
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Michelangelo in 1. Construction of the Apostolic Palace began in 1. Peter's Basilica was begun in 1. Renaissance architecture.
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The Roman Renaissance was cut short abruptly with the devastation of the city in 1. Papacy reasserted itself in the Counter- Reformation, and the city continued to flourish during the early modern period. Rome was annexed by Napoleon and was technically part of France during 1. During the Italian unification in the 1. Roman Question referred to the status of Rome under the temporal power of the popes. Rome was declared the capital of the kingdom of Italy on 2.
March 1. 86. 1, but the Italian government could not take its seat there because it was defended by a French garrison. Rome was eventually captured in 1. Lateran Pacts of 1. Vatican State. Rome served as the capital of the Italian Empire and Fascist Italy from 1. During this period, population hextupled from about 2. The Palace of Justice was completed 1. Rome was under siege by the Allied invasion of Italy and was bombed several times.
It was declared an open city on 1. August 1. 94. 3. It became the capital of the Italian Republic (established in 1. It is among the largest urban areas of the European Union.
Excavations made in 2. Archaeologists uncovered a stone wall and pieces of pottery dating to the 9th century and the beginning of the 8th century, and there is evidence of people arriving on the Palatine hill as early as the 1. BC. The brothers argued, Romulus killed Remus, and then named the city Rome after himself. After founding and naming Rome (as the story goes), he permitted men of all classes to come to Rome as citizens, including slaves and freemen without distinction.
After the ensuing war with the Sabines, Romulus shared the kingship with Sabine King Titus Tatius. These men he called patres, and their descendants became the patricians. He created three centuries of equites: Ramnes (meaning Romans), Tities (after the Sabine king), and Luceres (Etruscans). He also divided the general populace into thirty curiae, named after thirty of the Sabine women who had intervened to end the war between Romulus and Tatius. The curiae formed the voting units in the Comitia Curiata. Possibilities include derivation from the Greek. The Etruscan name of the city seems to have been Ruma.
Its further etymology remains unknown, as with most Etruscan words. Tucker's Concise Etymological Dictionary of Latin (1. The Quirinal Hill was probably an outpost for the Sabines, another Italic- speaking people. At this location, the Tiber forms a Z- shaped curve that contains an island where the river can be forded.
Because of the river and the ford, Rome was at a crossroads of traffic following the river valley and of traders traveling north and south on the west side of the peninsula. Free Kundli Software Download From Astro-Vision. Archaeological finds have confirmed that there were two fortified settlements in the 8th century BC, in the area of the future Rome: Rumi on the Palatine Hill, and Titientes on the Quirinal Hill, backed by the Luceres living in the nearby woods. The origins of the Italic peoples lie in prehistory and are therefore not precisely known, but their Indo- European languages migrated from the east in the second half of the 2nd millennium BC. According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, many Roman historians (including Porcius Cato and Gaius Sempronius) regarded the origins of the Romans (descendants of the Aborigines) as Greek despite the fact that their knowledge was derived from Greek legendary accounts.
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